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RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

Here is a study where the researchers collected 252 unique antibodies from 5 Covid-19 patients. These antibodies were screened (using live virus and pseudovirus) for neutralization of Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 and about 1/5 were neutralizing and 19 were found to be highly neutralizing. Next the researchers screened these same 252 antibodies for neutralization of SAR-CoV (using live virus and pseudovirus). They found 1 of the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was neutralizing of SARS-CoV. They identified where this antibody binds to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV; a specific location (epitope) on the RBD that is common in both viruses AND is present in all the SARS-CoV-2 variants AND in bat AND pangolin coronaviruses (the sources of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 & MERS). Again using live virus, the researchers found this antibody neutralizes all of these viruses (to varying degrees). Several very important findings here. An antibody that can be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 (all current variants). A location in the RBD that has not changed as SARS-CoV-2 has mutated. A location in the RBD that is common to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS. A location in the RBD that is common to corona viruses of bats and pangolins; the reservoir of future zoonotic corona viruses that could cause the next pandemic. A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants, SARS-CoV, and other sarbecoviruses BioRxiv Preprint 14 Oct 2021
BCSnob 10/15/21 06:07am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

Antibody tests can be used to distinguish between immunity from vaccination and immunity from previous infection. Differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected and vaccinated individuals in an inner-city emergency department MedRxiv preprint October 14, 2021. Using 1914 samples of known exposure status, we developed an algorithm to differentiate previously infected, vaccinated, and unexposed individuals using a combination of antibody assays. We applied this testing algorithm to 4360 samples ED patients obtained in the springs of 2020 and 2021. Previous infection induced antibodies to all parts of the virus including the nucleocapsid while vaccines only induced antibodies against the portions of the virus in the vaccine (typically just the spike including the RBD). Results: For the algorithm, sensitivity and specificity for identifying vaccinated individuals was 100% and 99%, respectively, and 84% and 100% for naturally infected individuals. Among the ED subjects, seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 increased from 2% to 24% between April 2020 and March 2021. Vaccination prevalence rose to 11% by mid-March 2021. These results were for an emergency department (ED) in Baltimore.
BCSnob 10/14/21 04:18pm Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

This is no surprise. Livestock farmers give vaccine boosters to pregnant livestock to provide passive immunity to newborns. Breastfeeding infants receive neutralizing antibodies and cytokines from mothers immunized with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine MedRxiv preprint 14Oct2021 Abstract Objective: To evaluate the immune response to COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccines present in breastmilk and the transfer of the immune response to the breastfeeding child. Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled 30 lactating women who received an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine between January and April 2021. Women provided serial milk samples, which included milk expressed before vaccination, milk expressed across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and milk expressed across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women also were asked to provide their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots; DBS) 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers received their second dose. Pre-pandemic samples of milk, DBS cards, and infant stool from prior studies were also utilized. Milk and infant stool samples were tested by ELISA for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgA and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern (VOCs): D614G, B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), and P.1 (gamma). Milk samples were also tested by electrochemiluminescence assay for levels of 10 cytokines. Results: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four VOCs and this response is primarily IgG-driven. The immune response in milk also included significantly elevated levels of interferon-? (IFN-?). The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed babies; anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA was detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side-effects. Conclusion: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in the breastmilk of most women. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike and VOCs. Importantly, we describe for the first time the transfer of anti-RBD antibodies to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2
BCSnob 10/14/21 02:36pm Around the Campfire
RE: Newsom signs bill to ban the sell of gas powered generators

Per capita values are the best way to evaluate emissions from a population and their habits. Choosing to use national emissions give small countries like UAE, Qatar, Kuwait a pass on how dirty they are. Not “cooking the books” as you claim. Same argument for using Covid cases per 100,000 vs total Covid cases; tells you if there is high transmissions vs just high population. Or in the case of CO2, high emissions or low emissions from a lot of people. Why should everyone in a highly populated country be expected to emit less co2 than everyone in a low populated country? Shouldn’t everyone in world be expected to emit the same (or at least not exceed a world wide threshold) since their emissions are all going to the same place (world atmosphere)? By your math everyone in a small country (like Iceland) could burn coal to heat their houses and other buildings, and burn coal to produce electricity and still not be a big emitter. Where would we be if every country in the world (no matter the size or population) emitted the same amount of GHG as the USA, since by your math we are going on amt/country?
BCSnob 10/14/21 10:34am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Booster Vaccinations: Preliminary Report MedRxiv Preprint 13 Oct 2021 We evaluated homologous and heterologous booster vaccination in persons who had received an EUA Covid-19 vaccine regimen. Methods: In this phase 1/2 open-label clinical trial conducted at ten U.S. sites, adults who received one of three EUA Covid-19 vaccines at least 12 weeks prior to enrollment and had no reported history of SARS-CoV-2 infection received a booster injection with one of three vaccines (Moderna mRNA-1273 100-mcg, Janssen Ad26.COV2.S 5x1010 virus particles, or Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 30-mcg; nine combinations). The primary outcomes were safety, reactogenicity, and humoral immunogenicity on study days 15 and 29. This study evaluated adverse reactions to homo or heterologous boosters and measured antibody levels (for multiple variants, spike and just RBD) and pseudovirus (3 variants) neutralization before and after boosting. Immunogenicity was assessed on Day 1 prior to booster vaccination and at Days 15 and 29 (unavailable for all groups) after boost. Serum binding antibody (bAb) levels against S-2P were evaluated with the MSD® 384-well Custom Serology Assay Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (4-plex ECLIA) version 2 (in validation) and using the 10-plex ECLIA for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant spike proteins.19 SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers expressed as the serum inhibitory dilution required to achieve 50% and 80% neutralization (ID50 and ID80, respectively) were determined by group, age group and timepoint, using pseudotyped lentiviruses presenting SARS-CoV-2 spike variants D614G, and for groups 1 to 3, B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.351 (Beta), as described previously.20 For the Beta variant, only a random subset of samples (20 per EUA vaccine, distributed equally between age groups and sites) was analyzed. Neutralizing activity was expressed in International Units (IU50/mL and IU80/mL) for the D614G neutralization assay. All booster combinations yielded >2fold increase in antibody levels in at least 96% of the patients. At baseline, bAb levels to the Delta variant were 34%-45% lower compared with binding of the Wa-1 strain in the same assay. Following boost, all participants had detectable bAb to the Delta variant and the level was only 15-36% lower compared with the Wa-1 strain. Sera from the older and younger age groups had similar bAb levels. Baseline is the antibody level just prior to booster, bAb is the designation these authors are using for binding antibody. All sera from participants who had received mRNA-1273 as an EUA vaccine had pre-booster neutralizing activity to the D614G strain at study enrollment, while sera from 24 (15.8%) individuals who had received Ad26.COV2.S and five (3.3%) who had received BNT162b2 had no detectable D614G neutralizing activity. Serum neutralization (IU50/mL) levels prior to booster vaccination were approximately three-and ten-fold lower for BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S recipients, respectively, compared to recipients of mRNA-1273, irrespective of interval between EUA vaccination or booster vaccination administered (Table 2, Tables S40-S45). This assay measured how well the patient serum sample prevents these pseudo viruses from binding to the ACE2 receptor. This is a link to how the neutralization assay works (Pseudovirus neutralization assay), see this heading in the materials and method section. This is an ongoing study with additional data to be collected. Our study has limitations. It was not designed to directly compare responses between different booster regimens. The sample size is insufficient for inter-group comparisons, and the demographics of those studied are not representative of the US population. Volunteers were not randomized into groups, nor stratified with respect to population characteristics or interval from last vaccination. Similarly, the sample size and interim follow-up period were not sufficient to identify rare or late adverse events following booster vaccination, and the interval between completion of the primary series and the booster vaccination evaluated is shorter than the 6 months authorized for BNT162b2. The immunogenicity data are limited to immune responses through Study Day 29, and only serologic responses are reported. The different homologous and heterologous vaccination regimens may vary in terms of cellular and humoral immune responses as well as longevity of the response. In summary, this preliminary report demonstrates that boosting with any of the three vaccines currently licensed or authorized for emergency use in the US will stimulate an anamnestic response in persons who previously received of the primary series of any of these vaccines. Homologous boosts provided a wide range of immunogenicity responses, with heterologous boosts providing comparable or higher titers. Reactogenicity and adverse events were similar across booster groups. These data suggest that if a vaccine is approved or authorized as a booster, an immune response will be generated regardless of the primary Covid-19 vaccination regimen.
BCSnob 10/13/21 02:51pm Around the Campfire
RE: Newsom signs bill to ban the sell of gas powered generators

And even better, all these wonder machines will be produced in third world countries like China that are actually ramping up coal fueled electrical generation to meet the increased demand from the manufacturing industry. China is building 47 new coal fired power plants currently and estimates are they will construct up to several hundred more. Nothing happens in a vacuum. (multiple sources including Time.com and CNBC). In other words, if China isn’t going to be a better steward of the environment than why should the USA (= “we have no desire to be better than China”). I’m sorry to say, but we (Americans), pollute (CO2) 2x more than Chinese; meaning, we need to cut our emissions to be as good as the Chinese.
BCSnob 10/13/21 10:49am Around the Campfire
RE: Did your dog influence your trailer purchase?

No, the trailer is our space. A little background for those who don't know how we RV. We use our trailer to go to sheep herding competitions where we camp in a pasture (no hook-ups) with our 6+ dogs. We wanted a trailer <24' long to facilitate getting in an out of these fenced pastures and we wanted 50+ gal of fresh water. These guided our trailer purchase. The tow vehicle is ordered for the dogs. A little over 20 years ago we ordered a cargo van with rear heat & AC, full windows, and rubber flooring to house all our dog crates and keep our dogs comfortable while on the road. This old van needs to be replaced and we will likely be special ordering a cut-away van on which we will have a Rockport body added (rear heat & AC, powered vents, windows, roll up rear door, curb side door with step, full insulation, rubber flooring, tie downs for dog crates, sliding door between cab and body, etc). Dogs are brought into the trailer; we typically have 1-3 in at a time.
BCSnob 10/13/21 07:49am RV Pet Stop
RE: Help-can't get Tully into the car due to size-RESOLVED

I’m happy you found a solution
BCSnob 10/12/21 06:31pm RV Pet Stop
RE: Help-can't get Tully into the car due to size-RESOLVED

Do you think the steps you have are too small or closely spaced for your dog? Do you think a foldable step stool or work platform would be large enough and tall enough for your dog to make it into your vehicles? Like 11.2 x 8.5 x 11 inches stool Or 24.5 x 26 x 13.3 inches Al Platform
BCSnob 10/12/21 11:36am RV Pet Stop
RE: Help-can't get Tully into the car due to size-RESOLVED

You will be more physically able to guide him down the steps than lift him up the steps. Guide his nose with food, stopping at key locations coming out to have him slow his momentum. Place the food in the vehicle (without the steps) as a lure to go in with you helping him from behind. Another approach is to place the food in the vehicle with the steps in place and then let him figure out how to get the food; be patient and only encourage him to get the food. I’ve also seen bigger/longer dogs have a harder time placing their paws on closely spaced steps than smaller/shorter back dogs; our house stairs are steep with small treads and our bigger males have more issues than smaller females with the steps. Our border collies can climb the trailer steps; jasper the greyhound could not (he had to jump in and out).
BCSnob 10/12/21 09:38am RV Pet Stop
RE: Help-can't get Tully into the car due to size-RESOLVED

How food motivated is he? FYI, it’s the jumping down (landing) that is the issue, not up.
BCSnob 10/12/21 09:06am RV Pet Stop
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

This prospective study from NY assessing vaccine effectiveness in 8,834,604 New York adults found that the measured decreases in vaccine effectiveness, during the time when Delta was becoming the dominate variant, may not have been due to waning immunity post vaccination. COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness by Product and Timing in New York State MedRxiv Preprint October 09, 2021 In New York State (NYS), over 2.4 million people have been diagnosed, and over 56,000 have died, with COVID-19 through Sept 29, 2021.1 COVID-19 vaccines are a critical prevention tool, with the three currently FDA-approved or authorized products originally shown in trials to be highly-efficacious against moderate-severe disease among adults, with mRNA-BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) at 95%, mRNA-1273 (Moderna) at 94%, and Ad26.COV2 (Janssen) at 72% efficacy.2-4 These studies’ endpoints were evaluated at relatively short follow-up of 14-28 days after series completion and during a period when circulating strains were less transmissible than the currently-predominant Delta variant.5 More recently, extended trial follow-up and real-world effectiveness studies have begun to document declines in efficacy and vaccine effectiveness (VE), for some outcomes and populations, during 2021. Studies in Israel documented larger declines in VE than observed in the U.S. for infection and severe disease among its Pfizer-receiving population, which may be due to earlier vaccination, increased sensitivity definitions, or other methodological differences.6-9 U.S. population-based effectiveness studies in NYS and sentinel populations have documented declines in VE, particularly for persons >=65 years, during the period in which the Delta variant became predominant and mitigation strategies and policies were relaxed.10-14 The limitations of open cohort surveillance studies and limited numbers of events in more controlled studies make it difficult to isolate and quantify the extent to which VE declines can be attributed to immunologic waning, Delta variant, behavioral changes, or other causes, particularly across subgroups defined by age, product, and risks for infection or severe illness. Methods We conducted a surveillance-based prospective cohort study of NYS adults, by linking statewide immunization, laboratory testing, and hospitalization databases. Incident laboratory-confirmed COVID diagnosis and hospitalization were ascertained among closed cohorts of vaccine recipients, defined by age, product, and timing of full-vaccination, during the pre- vs. post-Delta variant period from May 1 (99%), and compared to the cohort of persons remaining unvaccinated. Results Cohorts included in the analysis, and their outcomes, are summarized in Table 1. Among a total of 8,834,604 adults in this analysis, 5,787,817 (65.5%) were fully-vaccinated. Among those fully-vaccinated, 48.6% received Pfizer, 41.5% Moderna, and 10.0% Janssen. During follow-up, fully-vaccinated persons experienced a total of 38,778 cases and 2,363 hospitalizations and unvaccinated persons had 116,314 cases and 38,778 hospitalizations. Incident cases declined for all cohorts defined by age, vaccination status, vaccine product and time cohorts from May 1 through late June and increased thereafter following increases in the prevalence of the Delta variant (Figure S1), with rates consistently highest for the unvaccinated. Across product and time cohorts, estimated VE generally declined from highest levels during the week of May 1 (1.8% Delta variant) to a nadir around July 10 (85.3% Delta variant), with modest changes in following weeks (>95% Delta variant) All vaccinated patients that were followed were fully vaccinated by May 1; vaccine effectiveness vs time from May 1 to Aug 28 was calculated using breakthrough infections in the fully vaccinated cohorts vs unvaccinated adults in NY. The key finding here is the breakthrough infection rate increased as the prevalence of Delta increased but the breakthrough infection rate stopped increasing once Delta had become the dominate variant (breakthrough infection rates didn't continue to increase with increasing time from vaccination). Results 155,092 COVID-19 cases and 14,862 hospitalizations occurred. Estimated VE for cases declined contemporaneously across age, products, and time-cohorts, from high levels beginning May 1 (1.8% Delta variant prevalence), to a nadir around July 10 (85.3% Delta), with limited changes thereafter (>95% Delta). Decreases were greatest for Pfizer-BioNTech (-24.6%, -19.1%, -14.1% for 18-49, 50-64 years, and =65 years, respectively), and similar for Moderna (-18.0%, -11.6%, -9.0%, respectively) and Janssen (-19.2%, -10.8, -10.9%, respectively). VE for hospitalization for adults 18-64 years was >86% across cohorts, without time trend. Among persons =65 years, VE declined from May to August for Pfizer-BioNTech (95.0% to 89.2%) and Moderna (97.2% to 94.1%). VE was lower for Janssen, without trend, ranging 85.5%-82.8%.
BCSnob 10/12/21 08:15am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

This will be of interest for at least one poster here. Effect of heterologous vaccination regimen with Ad5-nCoV CanSinoBio and BNT162b2 Pfizer in SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies titers. MedRxiv preprint 11 Oct 2021 Abstract Introduction: The efficacy with one dose Ad5-nCoV has been concerned. As a result, some patients have self-reported getting a boost with BNT. Therefore, this study aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2 spike 1-2 IgG antibodies in plasma samples between two groups: one group immunized with Ad5-nCoV and another with a heterologous vaccination regimen with Ad5-nCoV and BNT. Methods: Prospective observational study included a subgroup analysis of patients who received the Ad5-nCoV immunization during the first trimester of 2021 in a Northern city of Mexico; and agreed to a follow-up for an entire year through SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies measurement samples. During the three months follow-up, some patients self-reported receiving a BNT boost. We report IgG levels from basal, 21-28 days after Ad5-nCoV dose, three months, and an additional 21-28 days after BNT boost. Results: Seventeen patients 40 (16) years old, 52.9% men, were analyzed. We created four groups: (G1) patients vaccinated with Ad5-nCoV with no history of SARS-COV-2 (n=4), (G2) patients vaccinated with Ad5-nCoV and the first shot of BNT with no history of SARS-COV-2 (n=6), (G3) patients vaccinated with Ad5-nCoV with history of SARS-COV-2 (n=5), and (G4) patients vaccinated with Ad5-nCoV and the first shot of BNT with history of SARS-COV-2 (n=2). The group immunized with a heterologous vaccine scheme reported higher antibodies after 21-28 days of follow-up after BNT boost. Median (IQR): G1 46.7 (-), G2 1077.5 (1901), G3 1158.5 (2673.5), and G4 2090 (-) (p<0.05). Headache was the most frequent adverse reaction when patients received Ad5-nCoV (n = 10, 83%), and pain at the injection site was the most frequent adverse reaction with BNT boost (n = 5, 83.3%). Conclusion: Patients receiving a BNT boost after Ad5-nCoV had higher SARS-CoV-2 spike 1-2 IgG antibodies titers with no severe adverse reaction.
BCSnob 10/11/21 02:04pm Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

Efficacy and Safety of NVX-CoV2373 in Adults in the United States and Mexico MedRxiv preprint 11 Oct 2021 Here is a preprint of the phase 3 study of the novavax Covid-19 vaccine; the vaccine platform is older technology (not mRNA). A portion of the virus (recombinant spike protein) and an adjuvant are injected to elicit the immune response (like the Hepatitis B and HPV vaccines). The study included 29,949 unvaccinated and not infected people in USA and Mexico randomized 2:1 (vaccine vs placebo). In the per-protocol population, there were 77 Covid-19 cases; 14 among vaccine and 63 among placebo recipients (VE: 90.4%, 95% confidence interval, “CI” 82.9 to 94.6, P90%) for prevention of Covid-19, with most cases due to variant strains.
BCSnob 10/11/21 07:34am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

I found this article from Kreisler Health News a good overview of the ongoing debate on if previous Covid-19 infections should count equally with vaccination. Covid Immunity Through Infection or Vaccination: Are They Equal? The discussion on using antibody tests to determine immunity is of special interest me since we manufacture and sell antibody tests at work. The article asks what antibody level is considered high enough to provide immunity. Additionally, I ask, which antibodies provide protection and to which variant(s)? The immune system doesn’t produce one antibody when exposed to a virus or vaccine; it produces 100s. Here’s how antibody tests work. You cover a surface with a portion of the virus. That surface is exposed to a serum sample from a patient. Antibodies in that sample that recognize the portion of the virus, binds to it. Anti human antibodies (antibodies that recognize human IgG or IgA or IgM are the added and bind all the antibodies from the patient sample that have bound to the virus particle. The test detects all of the anti human antibodies that have stuck to the bound patient antibodies. What virus portion or variant that is put in the surface will affect which patient antibodies are detected. This means that how the antibody test is constructed will impact what the antibody titer level means in terms of protection against the circulating virus variants; plus one needs to know what titer level is considered protective for each variant due to differences in viral fitness and transmissibility (how fast it replicates and how much virus one is exposed to).
BCSnob 10/08/21 11:33am Around the Campfire
RE: ALLIGATORS!

It was revenge for this gator eating a shark in the same area. Hilton Head alligator named Charlie ate a shark. Get used to it, scientists say
BCSnob 10/07/21 06:33pm RV Pet Stop
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

I’ve reviewed 4-6 retrospective studies on reinfection where there were 10s to low 100s of patients in the reinfected cohort. From these low numbers (compared to infection rates in the unvaccinated never infected cohort) the authors have estimated effectiveness of previous infections of ~85% out to 4-6 months after the first infection. Please note when comparing the effectiveness in these studies to the effectiveness from the clinical studies of vaccines the very large differences in patients (10s-100s for natural immunity compared to 10,000s in each cohort for vaccine immunity). Because of the low numbers in the reinfected cohort, effectiveness vs population demographics (age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, etc) could not be evaluated. Only the previously posted study from the VA had 2 age groups. If interested I can post links or you can go search on google scholar using the terms I used: covid reinfection rate
BCSnob 10/07/21 11:21am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

This was an interesting read (as much as I could follow). The durability of immunity against reinfection by SARS-CoV-2: a comparative evolutionary study The Lancet Microbe Oct 1 2021 Findings We obtained antibody optical density data for six human-infecting coronaviruses, extending from 128 days to 28 years after infection between 1984 and 2020. These data provided a means to estimate profiles of the typical antibody decline and probabilities of reinfection over time under endemic conditions. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 under endemic conditions would likely occur between 3 months and 5·1 years after peak antibody response, with a median of 16 months. This protection is less than half the duration revealed for the endemic coronaviruses circulating among humans (5–95% quantiles 15 months to 10 years for HCoV-OC43, 31 months to 12 years for HCoV-NL63, and 16 months to 12 years for HCoV-229E). For SARS-CoV, the 5–95% quantiles were 4 months to 6 years, whereas the 95% quantiles for MERS-CoV were inconsistent by dataset. This quote from the article is pertinent Undue public confidence in the long-term durability of immunity following natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to contribute to vaccine hesitancy,34 perhaps because of a false equivalence with the long-term immunity after natural recovery from evolutionarily divergent viruses causing diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella. By contrast, numerous respiratory viruses such as influenza, human rhinoviruses, or coronaviruses can overcome the immunity conferred by previous infections by evolving new variants in the protein domains most frequently surveilled and targeted by the human immune system. Just over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, novel SARS-CoV-2 variants that can vary in severity of infection and evoke differential immune system responses and that can thwart the durability of immunity started arising.35 Such novel variants probably play a similar evolutionary role in the persistence of lower-severity, endemic human coronaviruses.4 Mitigation of the potential evolution of immune-evading SARS-CoV-2 variants in the near-future might depend crucially on a rapid global deployment of vaccination, which can induce higher immunogenicity than natural infection.36 The duration of immunity provided by natural infection or vaccination is still being evaluated for an evolving virus. The data on if natural immunity is comparable to that from vaccination is not well established at this time; there have been very few studies published on the duration of immunity from natural infection as compared to the analogous studies on duration of immunity from vaccination. The quote above offers a word of caution about extrapolating DOI from natural infection by other viruses to DOI after infection by SARS-CoV-2 and predictions of “herd immunity” for an evolving virus.
BCSnob 10/07/21 10:25am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

Pfizer asks US to allow COVID shots for kids ages 5 to 11 Why is the news above important. Some have stated that Covid-19 transmission within schools is low; but this suggests that assertion may not accurately reflect reality in all school situations (like the one below and all those schools shut down because of high infection rates). Outbreak Associated with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant in an Elementary School — Marin County, California, May–June 2021 CDC 3Sept2021 The index patient’s students began experiencing symptoms on May 22. During May 23–26, among 24 students in this grade, 22 were tested. A COVID-19 case was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen test result.* Twelve (55%) of the 22 students received a positive test result, including eight who experienced symptom onset during May 22–26. Throughout this period, all desks were separated by 6 ft. Students were seated in five rows; the attack rate in the two rows seated closest to the teacher’s desk was 80% (eight of 10) and was 28% (four of 14) in the three back rows (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.036) (Figure 1).
BCSnob 10/07/21 06:50am Around the Campfire
RE: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

So tell me why it matters if I get the vaccine or not. The more infected people, the more mutations will evolve The more mutations the more likely the virus will evolve more fit and transmissible variants Higher vaccination rates mean lower number of infected people
BCSnob 10/05/21 03:53pm Around the Campfire
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