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RE: Can the grid keep up with EV use?

Recent leveling off of vegetation greenness and primary production reveals the increasing soil water limitations on the greening EarthScience Bulletin Volume 66, Issue 14, 30 July 2021, Pages 1462-1471 Abstract Global vegetation photosynthesis and productivity have increased substantially since the 1980s, but this trend is heterogeneous in both time and space. Here, we categorize the secular trend in global vegetation greenness into sustained greening, sustained browning and greening-to-browning. We found that by 2016, increased global vegetation greenness had begun to level off, with the area of browning increasing in the last decade, reaching 39.0 million km2 (35.9% of the world’s vegetated area). This area is larger than the area with sustained increasing growth (27.8 million km2, 26.4%); thus, 12.0% ± 3.1% (0.019 ± 0.004 NDVI a-1) of the previous earlier increase has been offset since 2010 (2010–2016, P < 0.05). Global gross primary production also leveled off, following the trend in vegetation greenness in time and space. This leveling off was caused by increasing soil water limitations due to the spatial expansion of drought, whose impact dominated over the impacts of temperature and solar radiation. This response of global gross primary production to soil water limitation was not identified by land submodels within Earth system models. Our results provide empirical evidence that global vegetation greenness and primary production are offset by water stress and suggest that as global warming continues, land submodels may overestimate the world’s capacity to take up carbon with global vegetation greening. Perhaps the concept of indefinite greening with increasing CO2 levels, while an appealing counter argument for controlling CO2, is too simplistic for a very complex global ecosystem. There are several other recently published studies that measured vegetation browning in rainforests with increasing CO2 while there was greening in semi-arid regions. I suggest you investigate scientific concepts using google scholar (peer reviewed scientific studies) instead of google.
BCSnob 02/20/23 06:36am Around the Campfire
RE: Cure for depresion

First off correlation does not prove causation; just because there is a correlation between a diet and the prevalence of depression does not prove the diet caused depression. It only indicates both occur together. Perhaps depression causes someone to look for a change in diet to relieve the depression; or something else is causing both the depression and the desire to abstain from meat. Or they are unrelated. Curious why the correlation between depression and diet became the focus since there is also a stated correlation to financial success, running, gender, low blood iron (can be caused by other than diet), perhaps age. Meat and mental health: A meta-analysis of meat consumption, depression, and anxiety Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition Conclusion The purpose of this meta-analysis was to extend our previous systematic review (Dobersek et al. Citation2020) and provide quantitative evidence to inform clinicians, policy-makers, and future research. Our results show that meat abstention (vegetarianism or veganism) is clearly associated with poorer mental health, specifically higher levels of both depression and anxiety. Our cumulative analyses suggest that the more rigorous the study, the stronger the relation between meat abstention and mental illness. However, the current body of evidence preludes temporal and causal inferences, and none should be inferred. This study suggests, previous studies finding a correlation between depression and diet may not properly grouped the subjects in the association studies. The link between vegetarian diet and depression might be explained by depression among meat-reducers Food Quality and Preference Volume 102, December 2022, 104679 Abstract Recent studies have reported an association between vegetarian diet and depression, although results have been inconsistent. This effect has most often been attributed to nutritional deficits among vegetarians. An alternative possibility is that individuals who are trying to reduce their meat intake experience cognitive dissonance related to enjoying meat on the one hand and being aware of the ethical problems with eating animals on the other. The tendency to include such individuals in vegetarian samples in previous research could explain recently reported effects. The goal of this study was to compare depression in meat-eaters, meat-reducers, and vegetarian/vegans in terms of depression to test this hypothesis. I compared depression scores across three measures in two large North American community samples between meat-eaters, meat-reducers, and vegetarian/vegans. Meat-reducers had higher depression scores than either meat-eaters or vegetarian/vegans. This finding suggests a novel explanation for previous findings and orients this field towards somewhat new questions and research directions.
BCSnob 02/18/23 09:51am Around the Campfire
RE: Can the grid keep up with EV use?

Potomac Edison Completes First Battery Storage Project to Support EV Charging and Ease Demand on Grid Link Perhaps power companies are already planning on how they will meet the increasing demands of charging EVs.
BCSnob 02/17/23 08:15am Around the Campfire
RE: New Working LGDs

Positive test confirmed. We’ll be starting the treatment asap. Duke will not be working while undergoing treatment. We’re making our game plan for dealing with young inexperienced Penny protecting the flock but not causing issues during lambing.
BCSnob 02/09/23 06:40pm RV Pet Stop

This is another good preprint that provides an overview of the types of immunity induced by vaccination with our without breakthrough infection. Of greater interest, this study proposes a means to determine when individuals do not need to get boosted based upon measuring antibody levels and T-cell levels: "anti-Spike IgG antibodies (=244 BAU/mL) plus SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells (=0.285 IU/mL of IFN? secreted)". Both humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are essential to prevent infection: a prospective study in a working vaccinated population from southern France Research Square preprint 8Feb2023
BCSnob 02/09/23 12:52pm Around the Campfire
RE: 25% better mpg from current diesels? Too good to be true?

Patents US-9303594-B2 US-8813718-B2 Speed of Air is covered, now they should publish their lab tests and real world tests (they referred to in the linked news article) in a peer reviewed journal.
BCSnob 02/07/23 06:34pm Tow Vehicles

Here is another preprint you may find interesting. Prior vaccination enhances immune responses during SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection with early activation of memory T cells followed by production of potent neutralizing antibodies Biorxiv Preprint 5Feb2023 My summary: Vaccination primes the immune system to fight off future infections. With SARS-CoV-2 the amount of circulating antibodies decreases with time since vaccination. Vaccination induces memory cells which can respond to a developing infection producing antibodies based upon the vaccine variant and expand to cover new variants. The memory cell response takes 1-2 weeks to get "up and running at full speed". Circulating antibodies prevent an infection from starting; memory cells prevent an infection from becoming severe to fatal. One can substitute "previous infection" for vaccination in the above summary. Abstract SARS-CoV-2 infection of vaccinated individuals is increasingly common but rarely results in severe disease, likely due to the enhanced potency and accelerated kinetics of memory immune responses. However, there have been few opportunities to rigorously study early recall responses during human viral infection. To better understand human immune memory and identify potential mediators of lasting vaccine efficacy, we used high-dimensional flow cytometry and SARS-CoV-2 antigen probes to examine immune responses in longitudinal samples from vaccinated individuals infected during the Omicron wave. These studies revealed heightened Spike-specific responses during infection of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. Spike-specific CD4 T cells and plasmablasts expanded and CD8 T cells were robustly activated during the first week. In contrast, memory B cell activation, neutralizing antibody production, and primary responses to non-Spike antigens occurred during the second week. Collectively, these data demonstrate the functionality of vaccine-primed immune memory and highlight memory T cells as rapid responders during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
BCSnob 02/07/23 10:53am Around the Campfire
RE: New Working LGDs

Bummer. When I got our new LGDs from a sheep farm in southeastern WV, the farmer said they do not use heartworm preventative (based upon their Vet’s recommendation). We took Duke and Penny in for a heath check. Both are healthy based upon the physical however Duke was heartworm positive on the snap test. He goes back to the vet Monday for retesting to be sent out to a lab.
BCSnob 02/04/23 08:57am RV Pet Stop

Are you surprised that varying virus exposure (analogous to varying doses in vaccines) leads to varying immune responses and there is variability in individual immune responses to the same vaccine dose (or virus exposure)? Read this one The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 lineages and associated antibody responses among asymptomatic individuals in a large university community MedRxiv preprint 30Jan2023 This study measured “……. the relationships between COVID incidence and CoV2 lineage, viral load, saliva Ig levels (CoV2-specific IgM, IgA and IgG) and inhibitory capacity in asymptomatic individuals between Jan 2021 and May 2022.”
BCSnob 02/03/23 03:30pm Around the Campfire

While I found the mathematical modeling beyond my abilities, I did find the introduction informative on the subtleties in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Antibody escape, the risk of serotype formation, and rapid immune waning: modeling the implications of SARS-CoV-2 immune evasion MedRxiv Preprint 26Jan2023 Introduction Some early commentators bullishly predicted the end of the COVID-19 pandemic 1–4, with the build-up of vaccine and natural immunity eventually curtailing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the pandemic is now entering its fourth year despite a vast burden of prior infection, over 13 billion vaccination doses globally 5 and high prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 6,7. Consistent with early-pandemic warnings 8–13, the pace of immune evasion has proven rapid 14,15, and transmission has continued robustly in the post-vaccine era 16. Warnings about insufficient vaccine acceptance 17, rapid waning of vaccine and post-infection immune protection 18,19, and antibody evasion 8–10,20 have all materialized at this point 21–23, leading to the high levels of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to evade immunity through mutations that degrade antibody binding has been a major driver of high and variable viral transmission. Indeed, the post-omicron era of the pandemic has been marked by successive waves driven by immune-evading subvariants, including BA.1, BA.5, XBB, and XBB.1.5 14,22,24–26. These immune-evading strains acquire an evolutionary advantage in the context of widespread immunity through mutations that degrade the binding of antibodies induced by infection with prior strains or by vaccines (“antigenic drift”)27. As neutralizing antibodies mediate sterilizing immunity to SARS-CoV-2–that is, they block infection upon exposure—evasion of these antibodies promotes reinfection 28. This advantage has allowed these immune-evading strains to achieve dominance, drive spikes in transmission, and replace (succeed) pre-existing strains 20. Between December 2021 (initial dissemination of the original BA.1 omicron variant) and December 2022, several strain succession events were documented resulting in an approximately 35-fold loss in neutralizing titer 29. Understanding the potential of emerging strains to drive waves of infection, persist in circulation, and co-circulate with pre-existing strains is vital for understanding and reacting to this volatile phase of the pandemic. Immune evasion has implications for short-term and long-term transmission levels 30, possible changes in disease severity (manuscript in preparation), and the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies 22,31. Anticipating the behavior of viral variants has tremendous practical significance for designing nonpharmaceutical and biomedical interventions. In this study, we use an epidemiological modeling framework to build a quantitative understanding of the role of immune evasion in inter-strain competition and selection dynamics under endemic conditions. To this end, we developed a two-strain Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model accounting for variable cross-immunity between a pre-existing and an invading strain. This paper explores viral evolutionary strategies by simulating a few relevant immunological scenarios: antigenic drift, which we surmise may be symmetric or unilateral, and induction of less durable immunity. Antigenic drift results in reduced cross-immunity (immunity induced by one strain against another) compared to homologous immunity (immunity induced by a strain against itself) 32. If the impact of antigenic drift is symmetric, the invading strain’s cross immunity against the original strain will equal the original strain’s cross immunity against the invading strain. The plausibility of this scenario is supported by the tolerance of SARS-CoV-2’s spike for a wide variety of mutations 8,33,34. However, omicron BA.1 appeared to benefit from essentially unilateral antigenic drift: while BA.1 strongly evaded pre-existing immunity to delta, the delta was impeded by immunity induced by BA.1 35. The final scenario regards the possibility of viral strains with reduced durability of immunological protection from reinfection. Possibly exemplifying this scenario is omicron, which appears to exert weaker protection against homologous reinfection than delta (prior omicron reduces risk of omicron reinfection by 59.3%; prior delta infection reduces risk of delta reinfection by 92.3%, 36.) Determining the immunological properties likely to be selected for is crucial for predicting the trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 under widespread transmission. Although the rapid pace of SARS-CoV-2 evolution and the simultaneous emergence of immune-evading multiple variants paints a complex picture 37,38, this simplified analysis provides a basis for understanding the inter-strain competition and selection that underpin these dynamics. Identifying the characteristics of strains likely to be successful and drive significant waves of transmission is crucial to support early-warning systems. Co-circulation of viral serotypes – that is, viral strains sufficiently antigenically distinct to coexist 39 – is an emergent threat that requires greater understanding and may lead to dramatically worse outcomes in the long-term trajectory of the pandemic.
BCSnob 01/31/23 07:50am Around the Campfire
RE: New Working LGDs

Since lambing starts early March, we need to be confidentDuke and Penny will accept our border collies working our sheep. We rely upon our border collies to help move new mothers and their lambs from the field (where most give birth) to barn stalls where we keep the new families for a few days. Saturday I took Fern and Lee (one at a time) out to work the flock while just Penny was loose with the flock. Penny has never been around border collies working sheep. She was interested in meeting (and hoping Fern or Lee would play) but not in interfering with them working. I didn’t record Fern; I did record some of Lee’s work session. Video 1 Video 2 Next up is repeating this with Duke and then with both Duke & Penny
BCSnob 01/30/23 07:44am RV Pet Stop
RE: Movie Recommendation

I enjoyed “Greyhound” with Tom Hanks.
BCSnob 01/24/23 02:52am Around the Campfire
RE: New Working LGDs

I needed to borrow a second giant crate to transport both Anatolians home in our van. I got one from a friend who told me she placed her LGDs with a plant nursery (leaving her sheep unprotected) because of frequent and consistent complaints from the general public to animal control about her LDGs living in a fenced field unattended (they did have shelter). One of the animal control officers started demanding she come deal with the unlawful living conditions of her dogs (unattended). Clearly, this officer and the general public do not know the exemptions for: "....DOG IS LAWFULLY AND ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN: (1) HUNTING; (2) LIVESTOCK HERDING OR GUARDING; (3) SLEDDING; (4) SPORTING; OR (5) TRAINING." This is not the first time I've been told about the general public causing issues for owners of working LDGs; for example "rescuing" one from a fenced field with their sheep and taking it to the animal shelter because it was obviously abandoned.
BCSnob 01/17/23 07:34am RV Pet Stop
RE: New Working LGDs

I was given a tour of the farm where I got the dogs; saw their other dogs and sheep. We flushed a golden eagle from a tree on our tour (one of their predators); I was told the dogs have not been very successful against the eagles or the mountain lion if the sheep are spread out. Duke and Penny seem content with their new home Play time
BCSnob 01/17/23 06:49am RV Pet Stop
RE: New Working LGDs

“Fun Fact” for everyone; Kangals & Anatolian Shepherds have the highest bite force of any dog breed, 2x-3x that of Pitbulls. Fortunately, unless they are poorly bred they have very little human aggression.
BCSnob 01/16/23 06:09am RV Pet Stop
RE: New Working LGDs

They'll need a vet check soon; the sheep farmer was told by her vet that they didn't need to treat for heartworm in south-eastern WV. Saturday night we crated them in a barn stall to be safe instead of turning them loose on the farm after I got home after sunset. Sunday morning I had Lee move the sheep into the barnyard, put him back in the house (saving the dog-dog introductions for later), and let Duke and Penny loose in the barnyard. New dogs & curious sheep Silly puppy Penny Since the sheep were not scared of the new dogs and other than Penny being a little rambunctious I could tell there would be no sheep-dog issues. Penny had been on a drag at her home farm to slow her down a bit (prevent her from running through and playing with the sheep) so I pulled out the drag we used with Sam when he was still young. I then spent 2hrs following Duke and Penny while they checked out the field/fence lines, followed and marked the trails foxes follow through the field, and monitored them with the barn cats (Penny grabbed and picked up one of them). I made sure they both got fed, learned how to get in and out of the barn where their autofeeders are, and made sure both were using the autofeeders. At this point we just need to make sure Penny doesn't kill cats and both meet and accept our working border collies. We will have both LGDs on chains in the field to watch the Border Collies work (Duke has been around working Border Collies gathering “his” sheep) and we’ll carefully do the dog-dog introductions watching for and reading the reactions.
BCSnob 01/16/23 05:51am RV Pet Stop
New Working LGDs

Yesterday I brought home two Anatolian Shepherds that came from a large sheep farm. 6yo Duke He is taller and longer than Wendy was. He was a bit snug in his crate (48"L x 32"W x 35"H) coming home. 1yo Penny They had been working together on the sheep farm and seem happy together here The only issue so far is Penny wants to attack the barn cats who had learned Sam & Wendy were cat friendly.
BCSnob 01/15/23 02:32pm RV Pet Stop
RE: EV alternative for light/medium duty trucks

RVing comes in many flavors. It seems when discussing EVs as tow vehicles the only flavor of RVing many people want to focus on the hauling a >6000lbs TT/5th wheel on a multi day cross country trip. An EV is currently not a good TV for this flavor of RVing. Another flavor of RVing is hauling a <6000lb TT or an even lighter PU a few hrs from home to a campground for a weekend camping trip using their daily commuting vehicle as the TV. Is everyone willing to bet the current EVs could not fulfill this function? Don’t forget most of the population won’t be towing “the Ike” on a weekend camping trip.
BCSnob 01/14/23 04:32am Tow Vehicles
RE: EV alternative for light/medium duty trucks

Even miles/$? :)
BCSnob 01/12/23 12:50pm Tow Vehicles
RE: EV alternative for light/medium duty trucks

Comparison of the Overall Energy Efficiency for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles and Electric Vehicles Environmental and Climate Technologies 2020, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 669–680 link Well to wheels efficiency: Gasoline ICEV: 12%-22% Diesel ICEV: 25%-37% 100% Coal fired power BEV: 13%-27% 100% Natural Gas fired power BEV: 13%-31% 100% Commercial Wind/PV BEV: 39%-67% Onsite (not grid supplied) PV BEV: 42%-72%
BCSnob 01/12/23 08:53am Tow Vehicles
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